The Origin of Modern Schooling

by Sasha Alyson

Students at a public school in the United States, in the 1920s.
Photos: Whether in colonial Madagascar of 1908 (top of page) or 1920s America (above), public schools have evolved in remarkably similar ways.

All around the world, students attend schools which have an astonishing degree of similarity.

  • Children are required to attend.
  • It runs from kindergarten to grade 12.
  • Students are divided by age, not by what they need or want to learn, nor by what they’ve already learned.
  • The teacher is the authority. The children provide empty heads which the teacher is paid to fill.
  • There is little or no opportunity for students to explore a subject in depth, to develop a passion, to hone a skill. There’s an hour for one subject, then an hour for another.
  • Teachers are considered qualified if, and only if, they have the required certificate.
  • Whether they can teach well is irrelevant.
  • Whether they love or hate children is irrelevant.
  • Whether childhood is a happy time for anybody, is irrelevant. That’s not on the spreadsheet.
  • Curriculum is fixed, and taught at a fixed rate, even if that doesn’t work for some students… even if it doesn’t work for anybody at all.
  • There is little or no recognition of superb teachers.
  • It centers around a standardized curriculum and lesson plans, not real-life experiences.
  • Students and teachers alike believe that the main purpose of school is preparing students to pass the exam.

If you were starting from scratch, and wanted to help children become contributing, well-rounded members of society, would you have invented this plan? Surely not. Nobody else did. Well, almost nobody else.


For many centuries, the favorite pastime of European rulers was invading one another to win more territory. The Prussians encountered a problem: Most of the Prussian troops were farmers who had been drafted to fight. When the enemy shot at them, they had an annoying tendency to go home to their family and farm. Prussia wouldn’t win more land with that army! The army wanted soldiers who, if ordered to make a suicidal charge, would blindly obey — not soldiers who might shoot their captain and go home.

To create them, Prussia instituted a system of schools that focused on making students respect and obey the authority figure — a teacher. When young men arrived for their first day in uniform, they already knew how to stand in a straight line. Prussia became a military powerhouse. It expanded its territory, and today we call it Germany.

But Prussia couldn’t tell parents, “Send us your children so we can teach them to be cannon fodder.” Schools also taught reading and arithmetic. History does not tell us if the primary goal was to mold obedient soldiers or obedient citizens. Prussia got both. Students did not, however, learn to think independently. The teacher had the answer; the students’ job was to memorize it.

This, alone, would have been enough to persuade other rulers to adopt what became known as the Prussian System. Soon another incentive appeared: The Industrial Revolution. Previously, most Europeans lived in the countryside and worked for themselves — typically as farmers, shopkeepers, blacksmiths, or carpenters.

The invention of the steam engine changed all that. Within a few decades, urban factories sprang up. Farmers — sometimes seeking a better life, other times forced off their land — moved to the city. But they weren’t reliable factory workers. Owners needed workers who would show up on time, follow orders, and accept boredom as their fate in life. Prussian-style schools churned them out.

More support came from a different direction. Horace Mann, an American reformer, thought the Prussian school system could improve the lives of poor people in the United States. He got Massachusetts to adopt it and other states soon followed.

European nations introduced the Prussian system in their colonies. It created the docile, low-level workforce that they needed, while appearing to benefit the local population. In most countries today, school enrollment has increased but the Prussian system still predominates.

Today, further support for this Prussian system comes from a new source: The education industry. A vast network — administrators, teachers, and government officials; textbook and curriculum publishers; teacher training colleges; aid workers in developing countries; and the inevitable consultants — all derive their income from the public school system that has evolved. Many of them genuinely care about children and education. But they also care about their income and job security. That shapes their thinking, and limits their enthusiasm for deep change.

And so here we are today, with a model of schooling intended to mold soldiers who wouldn’t run away when the enemy started shooting, and which evolved to meet the needs of factory owners, but also to make everyone feel good about sending their children into it. The origins of this system are still in evidence.

Promotional photo sent out by the Global Partnership for Education, showing girls marching in lockstep formation -- apparently GPE's ideal of what schools should be all about.
This year the Global Partnership for Education, a Western NGO that has spent $6 billion to influence school policies in developing regions, proudly announced its latest grants with this photo of schoolgirls marching in lockstep. (The boys, in back, aren’t so enthusiastic about the lockstep thing.) (1)

A never-ending stream of critics, in the global South and North alike, see plainly that the system doesn’t work, and think this is so obvious, it shouldn’t be hard to improve it.

But the system does work — for many people. Not only those in the education industry, but also for the global elite. And so, it continues to thrive. Even if children do not.


What can YOU do?

My goal here has been to give a brief history of the school model that has spread to much of the world. There were schools long before this, but the earliest schools focused on learning. This system does not.

If this is what you’ve got, and you want to change it, I can’t tell you what to do. Too many people are already trying to run it from afar! But I’ll suggest a starting point: Set a goal to talk with five people in the next three days — family, friends, other parents, government officials — about this. Ask what they think. Discuss your ideas. If you do this, I’d love to hear what comes of it, either as a comment (below) or a reply to the Tweet on 17 Sept. 2020 (at @k_colonialism) that has brought many people to this page.

And of course, we welcome links to this page on social media or your website. If you found this informative, your friends and followers are likely to, as well.

Comments from Twitter

We announced this story on Twitter, where readers made these comments:

virus, @defvire: Education is a tool to create the human robots
Who are told what to do
They are designed for absolute control of the populace

Kipkoeech araap Bor, @araap_bor: If we’re talking of establishment of education and looking at time, then y’all don’t know that education was established in Africa even long before Hippocrates established the medical school, and it was more advanced and effective than what’s being forced down our throats.
[Sasha replies: I don’t think we disagree. Schools existed long ago, and education, in the broadest sense, is older than humanity. I’m focused on the standard school model that is so widespread today but which many — including you and me — think does not work.]

Dizzy symbol, @Articulate_Kh: Being a teacher & edu manager I agree with u.
Though in Pakistan we’ve private schools that claim to promote critical thinking, yet the teachers r not trained and in fact the same rote learning system is dominant.
Only a few teachers like me believe in & promote thinking.

Bethel, @Bethel78877526: I have been waiting for this, thanks a million, we need to develop a new way of learning that will soothe us and develop us independently, I see a lot of kids struggle, we need a reform and fast. The educational system in Nigeria is at its brink and collapsing soon.

nnabuike, @nnaike2: If we question everything for the sake of woke/cancel culture, ‘constructive insight’ or whatever reason, we must be careful not to make the question look like challenge. In this scary times, we should think out constructive replacement before pointing out ‘default foundation’

Hugh Ngo Hu, @Archies__Army: School boys have been going to Eaton long before Prussia arose.
[Sasha replies: Yes, but Eton’s purpose was to prepare children of the ruling class to carry on its traditions. The Prussian model was for the rest.]

David Arias, @Fdariasm: I always thought this while in school, even though I loved to learn new things, I felt the system was wrong about the way they teach. Now I realize why. Nice reading

[Add your own comments at the bottom of this page.]

Sources and further reading

This story has generated considerable dispute. It is not intended to be a full history of schools, nor of education (two quite different things, often lumped together). I’ve merely tried to explain the puzzling fact that so many schools around the world share similar attributes, which don’t have much to do with meaningful education. From what I can learn, this is because they evolved – with many adaptations along the way – from the Prussian system. I’ve addressed common questions and criticisms in The Prussian System of Schooling which also invites further comments.

1. Girls Marching in Lockstep is from the Global Partnership for Education website, 28 Feb. 2020. (The layout has changed since then but the picture is still posted.)

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40 thoughts on “The Origin of Modern Schooling

    • I was dubious the first time I heard this history, but I’ve done some research and while, yes, I’ve given a streamlined account, I believe it captures the gist of it. If you think there are inaccuracies, your case would be much stronger if you’d give specifics.

      • The exaggeration comes from ignoring the developments that have happened since Prussia.
        In their general theme, the developments agree with your criticisms by calling for more constructive role, freedom and decision of learner and parents at the expense of teacher’s and headteacher’s roled. And, the calls for more reform continues.
        So, perhaps a reflection on how these developments are on/off track would have made the article more balanced and enlightening.
        Thank you

      • Thanks for contributing to this. I have, and will continue, to look at more recent changes. Here, I just wanted to look at the origins of the ideas that are so prevalent today.

      • Great article on origin of school n crisis they face today is thought provoking and calls upon us to redesign educational policy.

    • I’m not a schoolar or a teacher and I don’t know If I have translated this on a proper way (partly with help from online tools), but… This text reminded me Brazilian theologian, philosopher, educator, writer and psychoanalyst Rubem Alves:
      “There are schools that are cages. There are schools that are wings. Schools that are cages exist for birds to unlearn the art of flight. Caged birds are birds under control. Caged, their owner can take them wherever they want. Caged birds always have an owner. They are no longer birds. Because the essence of birds is flight. Schools that are wings do not love caged birds. What they love is birds in flight. They are there to give birds the courage to fly. Teaching them to fly is what they cannot do, because the flight is already born inside the birds. The flight cannot be taught. It can only be encouraged.”
      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubem_Alves

  1. I’m enriched, going through this article is a treasure, thank you, Rabindranath Tagore thought a” free” education not a system, ” where the mind is without fair

    • Thanks for commenting. I first read about Rabindranath Tagore in Pankaj Mishra’s superb book “From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia.” If U.S. schools were better, we would have learned more about him and less about King Louis-the-Whatever.

  2. Quite true.. in my opinion every nation state has turned into a ruthless monorchy. The survival of these states heavily depends upon a collective submission of it’s citizens to all anti citizens’ policy in the name of patriotism and nationalism.
    While the super powers are trying to tame majority nation states to suit their own tyrant global objectives… Education has become a tool to curb indipendent thinking and human freedom.

  3. Very interesting and true. I am more concerend about children with special needs or slight different way of thinking. They are out from our public education system …..

  4. Good insight and thought provoking
    The agony however i feel is that these ideas do not penetrate the education policies and we are so far still from actualizing these and challenge the existing status quo. My prayers to the Divine for the same.

  5. A very dumb article filled with wild allegations, irrelevant details, false correlations and incoherent conclusions.

    From the very beginning, with a list of beguiling “facts”, it quickly degenerates to a very confusing jumble of words whose ultimate aim is decidedly vague.

    👎🏾

  6. I’m glad to have read this, it shows that there are people out there who know true knowledge is not in indoctrination.

  7. Yes, foundational knowledge should be the lead not educatiom then followed by productive practicable self sustaining skill that would contribute to societal sustainability in a non too formal, rigid, commanding, dictatorial atmosphere.

  8. Interesting idea, but you chose the wrong king. Also, after the reforms they were largely destroyed by the French under Napolean, because it had a much more modern military system. Schooling didn’t help those losses.

    Copying a more similar system to France after did though, with some other reforms. School doesn’t train soldiers ultimately, armies do.

    Most of your bullet points on schooling systems are not objective facts, just opinions, and can’t really be used to inform the rest of the article.

    I don’t mean to be negative or nitpicking, it just seems you’ve biased the information to suit your viewpoint, not written something critical from evidence you’ve looked at.

    • Thanks for the thoughtful comments. From what I can learn, it was Frederick the Great who expanded the schools, but his army was quite successful and he wouldn’t have felt a need to make the schools be military training grounds. (What DID he actually feel? History is much better at recording grand actions than details like this.)

      As for the bullet points: These have resonated with a LOT of readers. I think it’s a mistake to limit discussion to things for which we have data or other “objective facts.” Massive numbers of people believe that schools today (often the schools that they or their children attend) have the characteristics I list. Those running the show, who are in a position to study it more objectively, to produce numbers for example, have no reason to do so. They can claim success based on enrollment figures, more teachers having higher certificates, or whatever criteria makes them look good. (This is precisely what the U.N. did, in proclaiming success for its education goal, simply because more children were enrolled; it did not ask whether they were learning anything.)

      Back to those Prussians: This has been a contentious topic. I don’t think it’s integral to the big picture, but I’d be interested to learn more and I don’t have access to a big library, so I’m making a new page which will invite comments and other research.

      Thanks again for the constructive comment.

  9. There are strong elements of truth in this article. Obviously the school system we have to is not really creating knowledge for independence in the children. It rather teach them to know only as much as the teacher knows. In this case, they cannot do anything the teacher is not able to teach them even when they graduate. It is a big mirage.

  10. Such an interesting take on Truth . Not many venture on These territories. I am thankful for this information as it encourages and motivates me to continue advocating for a change in our education system.
    I run a non profit organisation in Swazi that focuses on Rural Industrialisation,education being the foundation to the realisation of our objectives. It is apparent that in Order to achieve our mission, industrialising rural communities and empowering village folks economically, the system of education MUST change! We can not be doing more of what we have been doing over the years, hoping for a different outcome.
    I’m grateful to know that I’m not alone in these endeavours, such articles are evidence of the existence of true believers in Change! I would love to engage more on this, I can be contacted via email lwazichauke08@icloud.com.
    Good day to you all!

  11. Hello
    I m a simple social activist, serving for the marginalized masses of my country, since 15 years. I like but difficult to manage time time to search for history or philosophical stuff.
    But
    The theme displayed in article,
    As whole is 100% right.
    It doesn’t matter what Purrusian king did or not
    But the matter of concern is
    What Education System is producing in third world countries
    Like Africans, South Asian (Sub_Continant) wz the British colony,
    & After East India Company they Introduced Schooling System in Info Pak, based Lord Mackay’s Doctrine
    And
    Still this system is producing a generation mentally suppressed by European way of life & Following Thier living standards proudly
    This education system limits the creativity & thinking abilities & bound the young brains to explore Thier talent
    And
    The issue needs to b not addressed but practical steps for the future generations
    Thanks

  12. Good read, thanks. Check our democratic schools, sudbury style, Salisbury etc. Also steiner and waldorf, there are better ways and they are gaining traction.

    • Thanks for commenting. On my (ever-growing) list of topics, a high priority is to look at some other systems, including those, also Montessori, and the education approaches that evolved in ancient times. (In the Comments section of the tweet that links to this, several people have said things like, ‘You haven’t given any alternatives.’ It’s a sad commentary that anyone has trouble envisioning other approaches.

  13. Dear Sasha, thank you for this article. I appreciate and share your frustration with the ridiculous legacy of industrialization and colonialism in our schools. Much of what you share is true. But the driving force behind Prussian schooling was not militarism: it was the reformation. There is a brilliant chapter in the new book by Joseph Henrich on the history of western schooling, with incredibly rich statistical and historical analyses of early literacy. His case for underlining that it was the Protestant quest for helping individuals read and develop as free citizens with a direct relationship to God is convincingly argued with rich data. What Prussia and other nations did with that legacy afterwards is another story. Hope this helps feed the discussion.
    Fernande

    • Thank you, that’s helpful. Here, I’ve tried to make a distinction — and it’s fuzzy at time — between schooling that does or did have learning as its primary goal, and schooling which is used more as a way of controlling people. So what I’m saying is, when Prussia took the existing efforts to help individuals read, and gave them this new focus, that is the origin of many characteristics we see today. I’ll see if I can get the book. Very possibly, several motivations worked together.

  14. Very interesting eye opening article.. and reading comments gives me clues and reason to actually do more reading on the history of Education and policies that are in development.

  15. Our problems In the world bigger than you mentioned in artcle.
    Education is new a day more irrelevant to reall life of our students, in this system of school work for economical purpose, not all over the life.
    It’s outcome more make benifate to companies other to people.

    • Interesting read l must say. Equipped with such history, it should be easy to create teaching alternatives to the Prussian education system. We can create a completely divergent system that allows kids all that the current system suppresses.

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